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The quality and performance of seamless steel pipes are determined according to needs. According to different needs, different element contents and types must be matched.
(1) Carbon: The higher the carbon content, the higher the rigidity, but the worse its plasticity and toughness.
(2) Sulfur: It is a harmful impurity in steel. When steel with high sulfur content is subjected to pressure processing at high temperature, it is easily brittle and is usually called hot brittleness.
(3) Phosphorus: It can significantly reduce the plasticity and toughness of steel, especially at low temperatures. This phenomenon is called cold brittleness. In high-quality steel, sulfur and phosphorus must be strictly controlled. However, from another aspect, the low carbon steel contains high sulfur and phosphorus, which can make it easy to cut, which is beneficial to improve the machinability of steel.
(4) Manganese: It can improve the strength of steel, weaken and eliminate the adverse effects of sulfur, and improve the hardenability of steel. High alloy steel (high manganese steel) with high manganese content has good wear resistance. And other physical properties.
(5) Silicon: It can increase the hardness of the steel, but the plasticity and toughness are reduced. The electrical steel contains a certain amount of silicon, which can improve the soft magnetic properties.
Thallium (6) tungsten: can improve the red hardness and heat strength of steel, and can improve the wear resistance of steel.
(7) Chromium: It can improve the hardenability and wear resistance of steel, and can improve the corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance of steel.
(8) Vanadium: can refine the grain structure of steel, improve the strength, toughness and wear resistance of steel. When it melts into austenite at high temperature, it can increase the hardenability of steel; conversely, when it is in the form of carbides, it will reduce its hardenability.
(9) Molybdenum: It can obviously improve the hardenability and heat strength of steel, prevent tempering brittleness, and improve remanence and coercive force.
(10) Titanium: can refine the grain structure of steel, thereby improving the strength and toughness of steel. In stainless steel seamless steel tubes, titanium can eliminate or reduce the inter-granular corrosion of steel.
(11) Nickel: It can improve the strength and toughness of steel and improve the hardenability. When the content is high, it can significantly change some physical properties of steel and alloys and improve the corrosion resistance of steel.
Hafnium (12) boron: When the steel contains a small amount (0.001-0.005%) of boron, the hardenability of the steel can be doubled.
(13) Aluminum: It can refine the grain structure of steel and inhibit the aging of low carbon steel. Improving the toughness of steel at low temperature can also improve the oxidation resistance of steel, increase the wear resistance and fatigue strength of steel.
(14) Copper: Its outstanding effect is to improve the atmospheric corrosion resistance of ordinary low alloy steel, especially when used in combination with phosphorus.