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Iran’s plan to transport the Caspian Lake water through a 150-kilometer pipeline is difficult
Date:2019-08-01      Views:223Time      Label:Iran’s plan to transport the Caspian Lake water through a 150-kilometer pipeline is difficult
As the largest lake in the world, the Caspian Sea has a water storage capacity of 76 trillion meters. The five countries around it (Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Iran) are very short of fresh water resources except Russia. Turkmenistan has built the famous Karakum Canal from the middle and upper reaches of the Amu Darya to extract water in order to obtain a large amount of water. Of course, this has led to the gradual drying up of the Aral Sea in Kazakhstan. With the increasing shortage of water resources, they all turned their attention to this lagoon with a huge amount of water, the Caspian Sea.

Both Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan have proposed to dilute the waters of the Caspian Sea to the water shortage areas of their respective countries. Of course, Iran, with a population of more than 80 million, naturally does not miss this "water war." In fact, Iran is a country with a serious shortage of water resources. The eastern and southern parts of the country are basically Gobi Desert, and this part of the Caspian Sea is the most abundant area in Iran. The towering Mount Elbres is blocked. The water vapor in the south, because of the climb of the terrain, became the precipitation and fell. Because of the abundant water resources, the forest here is flourishing and the water network is densely covered, and a lot of rice is actually planted. So this is also the most densely populated place in the country.

However, the province of Semnan, south of Mount Elbrus, a mountain off the coast of the Caspian Sea, is not so lucky. The annual precipitation here is only about 100 mm, which is very dry. So the Iranian government proposed to dilute the lake from the Caspian Sea around 2005 and transport it to the region for drinking and agricultural production through a 150-kilometer pipeline. The plan is divided into two steps. The first step is of course to first dilute 200 million cubic meters of fresh water to the province of Semnan. The second step is to supply water to the surrounding central and western provinces centered on the province of Semnan. The western part of the southern province is the city of Tehran in Iran. The large population makes Tehran's water resources prospects very serious. The water supply is slowly increasing, eventually reaching the goal of supplying 500 million cubic meters of water per province per year. In fact, for the Caspian Sea, which has a total storage capacity of 76 trillion cubic meters, the billions of cubic meters of water resources in the district are nothing, which has little impact on the Caspian ecology. However, this project for the benefit of the country and the people has not been delayed for 14 years. There are three reasons for this.

In the first place, the Caspian Sea does not only belong to one country in Iran. It unilaterally draws water from the lake, and the other four countries certainly do not agree (need to negotiate between countries).

In the second aspect, we can see from the topographic map that the Mount Elbrus, which blocks the southward flow of water vapor, is very dangerous. We need to transport hundreds of millions of cubic meters of water from the Caspian Sea, which is below sea level, to the mid-south plateau, with an average elevation of more than 2,000 meters. The energy demand for this project is very large. Even if the cost of implementing the fresh water obtained is an astronomical figure, it is not worthwhile.

The third aspect. The area through which the pipeline passes is the rarest and precious virgin forest zone in Iran. To build a pipeline, it is necessary to cut down a part of the forest to build a passage. Therefore, this plan has also been opposed by environmentalists.

Of course, we still hope that this plan can be realized in one day in the future. Of course, Iran can also develop a water-saving economy and create maximum economic benefits with limited water resources.